Asigurarea unui sistem de colectare selectiva a deseurilor municipale generate de populatie Ce, cum, unde?

Photo by Paweł Czerwiński on Unsplash

Dupa cum scriam intr-un articol anterior, autoritatile publice locale au obligatia legala a “asigurarii unui sistem de colectare selectiva a deseurilor de la populatie”. Aceasta obligatie vine atat din Legea 211/2011 (republicata), cat si din diverse acte normative ulterioare, dintre care cel mai recent este OUG 74/2018.

Colectarea selectiva – sau, mai corect spus, separata – a deseurilor generate de institutii sau persoane fizice este un termen bine cunoscut sau cel putin vehiculat intensiv. Aplicarea, insa, este dificila sau cel putin asa este perceputa. Intr-adevar, rezultatele nu apar peste noapte, iar consecventa si rabdarea sunt extrem de importante.

Primariile sunt obligate sa colecteze separat deseurile generate in cadrul institutiei, dar sunt direct raspunzatoare si de gestionarea deseurilor municipale, provenite de la populatie, ceea ce conduce la o serie de confuzii si neintelegeri pe care vom incerca sa le clarificam in continuare.

Ce deseuri colectam selectiv?

Conform normelor legislative, Primariile au obligatia de a pune la dispozitie sisteme de colectare selectiva cel putin a deseurilor de hartie, metal, plastic si sticla. Implicit, fractia de deseuri reziduale (sau amestecate, mixte, menajere, umede) constituie a cincea categorie care se va colecta separat. Interdictia de-a elimina amestecat deseuri din echipamentele lectrice sau deseuri cu continut periculos (de exemplu baterii, becuri fluorescente, chimicale, etc) complica lucrurile si mai mult: teoretic, primaria ar trebui sa asigure servicii de colectare separata si a acestor categorii de deseuri.

Tinta de reducere a cantitatilor depozitate, atat de discutata, s-a pastrat neschimbata: cel putin jumatate din cantitatea totala de deseuri municipale generate trebuie deviata de la depozitare, pana la sfarsitul anului 2020. Pana una-alta, Romania nu are o situatie clara cu privire la cate deseuri genereaza, cantitatile raportate de 270 kg/cap de locuitor sunt grosier subestimate (sub 60% fata de  media celorlalte tari din Europa de Est).

Cum colectam selectiv deseuri?

Pentru a evita sanctiuni cuprinse intre 5.000 lei si 15.000 lei (Legea 211/2011, cu modificari si completari ulterioare), Primaria trebuie sa asigure si sa raspunda de colectarea separata, transportul, neutralizarea, valorificarea si eliminarea finala a deseurilor, inclusiv a celor menajere periculoase. De asemenea, tot Primaria pune la dispozitie spatii necesare si containere pentru colectarea separata a deseurilor, pe fluxuri de materiale, si asigura functionalitatea acestora. Nu este obiectul acestui articol discutarea costurilor de natura fiscala pe care UAT-ul le acumuleaza catre Fondul pentru mediu, pe considerente de natura similara, insa vom reveni asupra acestora intr-un articol viitor.

Unde anume colectam selectiv?

Implementarea sistemelor de colectare in mod selectiv a deseurilor municipale se realizeaza la sursa, adica in locul in care acestea se genereaza: la domiciliu sau, respectiv, la locul de derulare a activitatii economice din care rezulta deseurile respective. Spre exemplu, containerele de culori diferite se vor atribui fiecarui generator de deseuri sau beneficiar al serviciilor de salubrizare. Preluarea deseurilor (golirea) se poate realiza in intervale temporale diferite, in containere sau alte capacitati de manipulare departajate, separat, pe tipuri de deseu, de catre colectorul de deseuri, de preferat in baza unor contracte clare, cu clauze explicite in acest sens.

Colectarea separata a deseurilor este un proces continuu, urmat de reciclare, proceduri de valorificare energetica sau alte forme de valorificare si in ultimul rand eliminare. Deseurile destinate eliminarii sunt acelea care nu se pot supune nici unei forme de valorificare sau reciclare, conform legislatiei nationale in vigoare si, adeseori, conform viabilitatii economice a acestor operatiuni. Lipsa instrumentelor financiare, insa, este cel mai comun motiv pentru care operatorii aleg sa incalce legea, ducand la depozitare deseuri a caror eliminare prin depozitare este explicit interzisa de legislatie.

Definirea legala a unor termeni specifici

  • deseu – orice substanta sau obiect pe care detinatorul il arunca ori are intentia sau obligatia sa il arunce
  • producator de deseuri – producatorul initial de deseuri sau orice persoana care efectueaza operatiuni de preprocesare, amestecare sau de alt tip, care duc la modificarea naturii sau a compozitiei acestor deseuri
  • gestionarea deseurilor – colectarea, transportul, valorificarea si eliminarea deseurilor, inclusive supervizarea acestor operatiuni si intretinerea ulterioara a amplasamentelor de eliminare, inclusiv actiunile intreprinse de un comerciant sau un broker;
  • reciclare – orice operatiune de valorificare prin care deseurile sunt reprocesate in produse, materiale sau substante pentru a-si indeplini functia lor initiala sau pentru alte scopuri. Aceasta include reprocesarea materialelor organice, dar nu include valorificarea energetică si reprocesarea in vederea folosirii materialelor drept combustibil sau pentru operatiunile de rambleiere
  • eliminare – orice operatiune care nu este o operatiune de valorificare, chiar si in cazul in care una dintre consecintele secundare ale acesteia ar fi recuperarea de substante sau de energie

NOU!!! prin OUG 74/2018, apar noi precizari in ceea ce priveste subclasificarea deseurilor municipale:

  1. deseuri amestecate si deseuri colectate separat de la gospodarii, inclusiv hartia si cartonul, sticla, metalele, materialele plastice, biodeseurile, lemnul, textilele, ambalajele, deseurile de echipamente electrice si electronice, deseurile de baterii si acumulatori si deseurile voluminoase, inclusiv saltelele si mobila;
  2. deseuri amestecate si deseuri colectate separat din alte surse in cazul in care deseurile respective sunt similare ca natura si compozitie cu deseurile menajere. Deseurile municipale nu includ deseurile de productie, agricultura, silvicultura, pescuit, fose septice si reteaua de canalizare si tratare, inclusiv namolul de epurare, vehiculele scoase din uz si deseurile provenite din activitati de constructie si desfiintari

Articol in colaborare www.ecoteca.ro  si www.raportare-mediu.ro

În categoria autoritati, baterii, deseuri, deseuri din constructii, deseuri municipale, electronice, legislatie, management deseuri, reciclare | Lasă un comentariu

Deseuri – Schimbari majore privind gestionarea deseurilor municipale de catre primarii

Finalul de an 2018 vine cu o serie de schimbari majore privind gestionarea deseurilor municipale de catre primarii. Ele se concretizeaza – deocamdata, atentie! – in prevederile OUG 74/2018.

Impunerile la nivelul Uniunii Europene trebuie respectate fara echivoc si de Romania; reglementarile ar trebui sa tina cont atat de specificul national (infrastructura, nivel de performanta, cadru institutional, obiceiuri de consum etc.) cat si de directia generala de politica publica comunitara, marcata de dificultatile majore in a recicla deseuri si a reduce depozitarea. Ar trebui. Acum haideti sa vedem ce se intampla in mod concret.

Autoritatilor locale, fie ca sunt ele primarii sau ADI-uri, li se atribuie o serie de obligatii importante, unele cu efect imediat, altele incepand cu anul viitor. Chiar si pentru acele masuri care urmeaza sa-si creeze efecte incepand cu 1 ianuarie 2019, pregatirea implementarii acestora trebuie sa se realizeze inca de pe acum.

Iata cateva dintre provocari:

  • Asigurarea unui sistem de colectare selectiva a deseurilor municipale generate de populatie (cel putin pentru hartie si carton, metale, plastic si sticla);
  • Atingerea tintei de reciclare a deseurilor municipale produse (minim 50% din masa totala generata pana la 30 decembrie 2020);
  • Contributia pentru economia circulara (suportata de salubristi) (de la 1 ianuarie 2019), pentru cantitatile de deseuri care ar fi trebuit valorificate dar nu au fost;
  • Includerea tarifelor distincte pentru gestionarea deseurilor colectate selectiv, in caietele de sarcini si in contractele de delegare a serviciului de salubrizare (de la 1 ianuarie 2019);
  • Respectarea indicatorilor de performanta pentru activitatile din cadrul serviciului de salubrizare si aplicarea de penalitati pentru nerealizarea lor (de la 1 ianuarie 2019);
  • Respectarea instrumentului economic “plateste pentru cat arunci”, pe baza volumului de deseuri, a frecventei de colectare, greutatii si/sau numarului de saci de colectare personalizati; Tarifele si sanctiunile asupra beneficiarului serviciului de salubrizare sunt stabilite de catre Primarie (de la 1 ianuarie 2019);
  • Respectarea principiului “Raspunderea extinsa a producatorului”, concretizat in finantarea la bugetul local pentru acoperirea costurilor de colectare si valorificare a deseurilor din ambalaje din partea organizatiilor producatorilor de produse ambalate (de la 1 ianuarie 2019).

Asadar, modificarile din sistemul de gestionare a deseurilor presupun atentie si implicare din partea Primariilor. Dupa cum puteti vedea din formularea obligatiilor legale de mai sus, detaliile si eforturile de implementare sunt lasate la interpretarea si decizia primariilor, in calitatea lor de furnizori – directi sau indirecti – de servicii publice catre populatie si de beneficiari ai contractelor de salubrizare, in timp ce controlul periodic al implementarii masurilor se va realiza de catre comisii din cadrul autoritatilor competente.

Nerespectarea obligatiilor de mediu va atrage sanctiuni si amenzi care pot fi evitate insa necesita know-how, organizare si decizii. Cele mai recente obligatii provin, cum spuneam la inceputul articolului, din prevederile OUG 74/2018, pentru modificarea si completarea Legii 211/2011 privind regimul deseurilor, a Legii nr. 249/2015 privind modalitatea de gestionare a ambalajelor si a deseurilor de ambalaje si a OUG 196/2015 privind Fondul pentru mediu. Varianta integrala a normativului o gasiti aici.

Articol realizat cu sprijinul colegilor de la Green Business Management www.raportare-mediu.ro

În categoria ambalaje, autoritati, bani, deseuri, deseuri municipale, economie circulara, legislatie, management deseuri, politici publice, reciclare, Uncategorized | Lasă un comentariu

UrbanWINS – Newsletter #6

1. PROJECT NEWS

UrbanWINS puts forward 50 Best Practices for waste prevention and management

The collection of Best Practices on waste prevention and management brings together circular economy tools that improve the state of the art for municipalities. They serve as examples for municipalities in developing their own circular waste prevention and management strategies. When developing the assessment criteria and format of the template, a number of key elements were taken into account: the needs of the municipalities, the context of the project, the background of the partners and the EU Tools – European Commission Directives and handbooks.

The Best Practices collection thereby addresses the needs of municipalities in waste prevention and management. It puts replicability, innovation, relevance for urban metabolism, effectiveness, sustainability and stakeholder engagement central. The Best Practices are heterogeneous, covering different EU countries, waste hierarchy areas, relevant waste streams for local authorities, tools and policy types and economic sectors. The full report can be found on the UrbanWINS website.

This report is an important component of the UrbanWINS toolkit to be developed as final result of the project. The toolkit will serve urban policy makers, offering them strategic and operational tools to better address urban waste policies in relation to urban metabolism processes, by using participatory decision-making processes. It will also address various urban stakeholders (such as NGOs, engaged citizens and community organizations, technology providers etc.) that can develop innovative urban waste prevention and management actions in collaboration with local authorities.

The toolkit will include the following components:

  • A collection of urban waste prevention and management recommended practices for different scenarios;
  • UrbanWINS Tools – Material Flow Analysis, Urban Metabolism, DIPSIr Model, SWOT, TOWS, Life Cycle Assessment analysis results in waste decision making;
  • Guidelines for the selection and implementation of adequate stakeholder engagement techniques.

Ecoteca and Global Innovation Solutions put together the collection of 50 Best Practices, with the support CTM, IUAV, Cree, Consorci del Bages, Linea Gestioni, Ecosistemi, SERI.


State of the art of pilot cities activities and urban stakeholders engagement processes

The UrbanWINS project used a unique stakeholder engagement process – the urban agoras – which was implemented in each of the eight UrbanWINS pilot cities. This engagement process brought together citizens and other stakeholders in the realm of waste management and prevention to find innovative solutions and come up with concrete actions. All UrbanWINS pilot cities have completed the participatory process during which they:

  • Identified priorities and objectives for waste prevention and management;
    Selected actions they perceived as most important and urgent to be included in the strategic planning frameworks, and;
  • Identified suitable actions for piloting purposes (at least 3 for each city).

Each pilot city has developed a Strategic Planning Framework (SPF) and the Local Strategic Action Plans (LSAP) are being finalised. As for the SPF, the introductory part of the UrbanWINS Deliverable 4.2, published on the project website (link), gives a good overview of the Plans’ contents.

The first phase of the participatory process resulted in each of the pilot cities identifying a selection of „TOP 6 actions”. This was completed in March 2018. Between the end of March and the beginning of May 2018, participants evaluated these TOP 6 actions and defined a group of 3 actions to be selected for pilot implementation. The comparative methodology used in these Face to Face Agoras allowed participants to compare actions two by two by type of tool (voluntary measures, regulatory measures and awareness raising measures) and at the end of the process, each of the eight pilot cities came up with TOP 3 actions to be implemented.

Pilot cities are now implementing different actions. After the implementation, stakeholders will meet again at the urban agoras to discuss the results of the pilot actions and evaluate their effectiveness.

Picture copyright: UrbanWINS team


From participatory sessions to actions!

Pilot cities have accomplished their last step of the participatory process to set up the UrbanWINS Pilot Actions. In the last round of the Face to Face Agoras stakeholders worked on how to evaluate the Pilot Actions: the Evaluation Plan.

Pilot actions are now being implemented in each city by the municipalities. Join and get involved! You can also follow the actions development through the Online Agoras Platform.
In the first quarter of 2019, stakeholders will meet up again, now to evaluate the pilot actions implementation!


2. RELATED NEWS

UrbanWINS European Advisory Board member, the European Environmental Bureau (EEB) has launched a Europe-wide product reuse campaign. Together with a range of European NGO’s the EEB calls on policy makers to take measures to ensure products placed on the market are designed to last and be repaired. For more information on the campaign check EEB’s website.


Check out REPAiR – UrbanWINS’ sister project with a research focus. The objective of REPAiR is to provide local and regional authorities with an innovative transdisciplinary open source geodesign decision support environment (GDSE). This is developed and implemented in living labs in six metropolitan areas. The Metropolitan Area of Naples is one case study for the REPAiR project, a strategic area in the peri-urban concurbation, where waste flows and wastescapes shape the territory. The research will result in a co-design/co-production of Eco-Innovative Solutions and Strategies to solve waste management issues and regenerate wastescapes. Find out more on the REPAiR their website.


3. UPDATES PRODUCED BY THE BLOGGERS

Featured today: Cremona and Bucharest

Both cities Cremona and Bucharest have been busy involving their citizens in planning initiatives that tackle urban waste. The series of public Agoras held in the cities is now coming to an end – with some phenomenal outcomes. Learn the latest from bloggers Valerio (Cremona) and Matei (Bucharest).

Cremona

Valerio from Cremona regularly reports on the city’s projects regarding waste management and citizen participation. You can check out his posts on the online agoras (log in required). The latest initiative, called „piccoli passi” is a game set up for school children that encourages them to save and separate waste.

Cremona is also heading for zero food waste with two initiatives. It joined the “No waste” association, which promotes an app to connect citizens to restaurants and food vendors with food surpluses – encouraging the citizens to buy nearly expired food.

And as part of the „Keep the rest” initiative restaurants were handed aluminum boxes to let customers take home the leftovers from their meal in reusable containers – avoinding food waste and packaging waste at once. Cremona was also invited to SUM 2018, a symposium on environmental sustainability that was held in Bergamo, to talk about UrbanWINS and their choice of pilot actions.

Bucharest
Matei from ecologic magazine reports the latest outcomes of the urban Agoras in Bucharest. Citizens came up with plenty of ideas to tackle urban waste and eventually selected three priorities: Waste separation at public events, awareness campaigns around reducing waste in public schools, and a plan toward zero food waste pilot action in restaurants. Read more about these amazing outcomes on his website (In Romanian).


4. UPCOMING EVENTS

UrbanWINS Webinar

From citizen participation to local action: How cities pilot circular economy actions to fight urban waste

The next UrbanWINS webinar is all about cities experiences in selecting and implementing innovative circular waste management policies. We zoom in on the UrbanWINS pilot cities Torino and Leiria and will hear about their activities on the ground.
And we will hear how cities can learn from each other: The participants of the UrbanWINS exchange program CityMatch are interviewed about their experience visiting a new city and learning from their colleagues about waste prevention and management.

When? 12th June 2018, 15:00 – 16:30 CET
Website: UrbanWINS Webinar
How?

1. Go to link
2. Click „Register”.
3. On the registration form, enter your information and then click „Submit”.


Connecting Cities | Local solutions for global challenges

Annual conference of the European network of cities Climate Alliance.
Fondazione Ecosistemi has been invited to present the UrbanWINS approach in the side session “Connecting Circle: Co-creating circular cities and regions” on 02 October 2018 (11:30 – 13:30).

When? 30th September to 3rd October 2018
Where? Barcelona, Spain
Website: Climate Alliance
Registration deadline: 16 September 2018
Contact: europe@climatealliance.org


EcoProcura

International Conference on sustainable and innovation procurement.
UrbanWINS will be present!

When? 3rd to 5th October 2018
Where? Nijmegen, Netherlands
Website: EcoProcura
Contact: ecoprocura2018@iclei.org


RECUWASTE 2018

The congress of international reference, organized by the Consortium for the Treatment of Solid Urban Wastes of the Maresme, together with the Generalitat of Cataluña and the Diputación de Barcelona, and in collaboration with various public and private entities.
The main goals and the status of pilot actions in Manresa and Sabdell (UrbaWINS pilot cities) will be presented in this congress.

When? 8th and 9th October 2018
Where? Mataró, Spain
Website: RECUWASTE
Contact: info@recuwaste.com


UrbanWINS Italian National Conference

UrbanWINS Italian national conference will be held within the framework of a bigger event that is the Forum CompraVerde-BuyGreen, International fair and conference on green procurement.

When? 19th October 2018
Where? Rome, Italy
Website: Forum Compra Verde
Contact:info@recuwaste.com 


UrbanWINS Spanish National Conference
UrbanWINS project partner CTM is organizing a national conference in Sabadell (Spain). It is inviting project partners and local governments to learn about innovative ways of waste prevention and citizen participation. UrbanWINS project outcomes will be presented and new models of waste management that promote infrastructure for a circular economy are showcased. To find out more, contact UrbanWINS partner CTM.

When? 23th November 2018
Where? Sabadell, Spain
Website: CTM


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Copyright: All articles and images  in this publication – except for the information regarding the REPaiR project for which contact with the REPaiR consortium is required – can be replicated and built upon, however they must be attributed to the UrbanWINS project.

Copyright © 2016, ICLEI – Local Governments for Sustainability l All rights reserved.

Our mailing address is:
info@urbanwins.eu

 

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În categoria Uncategorized | Lasă un comentariu